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Vertical surveying is
the process of determining elevations above mean sea-level. In geodetic surveys executed primarily for mapping, geodetic positions are referred to an ellipsoid, and the elevations of the positions are referred to the geoid. However, for satellite geodesy the geoidal heights must be considered to establish the correct height above the geoid. Precise geodetic leveling is used to establish a basic network of vertical control points. From these, the height of other positions in the survey can be determined by supplementary methods. The mean sea-level surface used as a reference (vertical datum) is determined by averaging the hourly water heights for a specified period of time at specified tide gauges.
There are three leveling techniques: differential, trigonometric, and barometric. Differential leveling is the most accurate of the three methods. With the instrument locked in position, readings are made on two calibrated staffs held in an upright position ahead of and behind the instrument. The difference between readings is the difference in elevation between the points.Trigonometric leveling involves measuring a vertical angle from a known distance with a theodolite and computing the elevation of the point. With this method, vertical measurements can be made at the same time horizontal angles are measured for triangulation. It is, therefore, a somewhat more economical method but less accurate than differential leveling. It is often the only practical method of establishing accurate elevation control in mountainous areas. In barometric leveling, differences in height are determined by measuring the differences in atmospheric pressure at various elevations. Air pressure is measured by mercurial or aneroid barometer, or a boiling point thermometer. Although the accuracy of this method is not as great as either of the other two, it obtains relative heights very rapidly at points which are fairly far apart. It is used in reconnaissance and exploratory surveys where more accurate measurements will be made later or where a high degree of accuracy is not required.